Find more ways to say concrete, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Definition and synonyms of concrete from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education.. Concrete is made up of three basic components: water, aggregate (rock, sand, or gravel) and Portland cement. Many finishes can be applied to improve the appearance and preserve the surface against staining, water penetration, and freezing. No longer requiring discarding rainwater through use of drains also means that less electricity is needed (more pumping is otherwise needed in the water-distribution system), and no rainwater gets polluted as it no longer mixes with polluted water. Concrete is a contributor to the urban heat island effect, though less so than asphalt.[108]. Abstract objects have no physical referents, whereas concrete objects do. Design-mix concrete can have very broad specifications that cannot be met with more basic nominal mixes, but the involvement of the engineer often increases the cost of the concrete mix. [116][117] The pour (a part of the foundation for the Abu Dhabi's Landmark Tower) was 16,000 cubic meters of concrete poured within a two-day period. One of the earliest surviving examples of this concrete construction is the Temple of the Sybil (or Temple of Vesta) at Tivoli, built during the 1st century, The second industrial age also saw the reemergence of concrete in a new composite relationship with steel, creating a technology that would rapidly assume a major role in construction. When the cone is carefully lifted off, the enclosed material slumps a certain amount, owing to gravity. If it is allowed to dry prematurely, it can experience unequal tensile stresses that in an imperfectly hardened state cannot be resisted. In metaphysics, abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether the object that a term describes has physical referents. The cone is placed with the wide end down onto a level, non-absorptive surface. In the process known as curing, the concrete is kept damp for some time after pouring to slow the shrinkage that occurs as it hardens. Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. [104] As of 2019, the production of Portland cement contributed eight percent to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, largely due to the sintering of limestone and clay at 1,500 °C (2,730 °F). It is one in every of the foremost necessary and useful materials for construction work. By applying a measured amount of stretching force to the steel, the amount of compression transmitted to the concrete can be carefully regulated. Polymer concretes are mixtures of aggregate and any of various polymers and may be reinforced. A concrete example is an example that can be touched or sensed as opposed to an abstract example which can't be. "The floors were cement, in some places hard, but, by long exposure, broken, and now crumbling under the feet." Underwater placement methods include the tremie, pumping, skip placement, manual placement using toggle bags, and bagwork. [72][73], Nanoconcrete (also spelled "nano concrete"' or "nano-concrete") is a class of materials that contains Portland cement particles that are no greater than 100 μm[74] and particles of silica no greater than 500 μm, which fill voids that would otherwise occur in normal concrete, thereby substantially increasing the material's strength. Raising the water content or adding chemical admixtures increases concrete workability. The more concrete and specific your language is, the more clear and vivid it will be. [Stop right here and reread that definition. Workability depends on water content, aggregate (shape and size distribution), cementitious content and age (level of hydration) and can be modified by adding chemical admixtures, like superplasticizer. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. [citation needed], Energy requirements for transportation of concrete are low because it is produced locally from local resources, typically manufactured within 100 kilometers of the job site. [37], As stated by Abrams' law, a lower water-to-cement ratio yields a stronger, more durable concrete, whereas more water gives a freer-flowing concrete with a higher slump. An early example at Hoover Dam used a network of pipes between vertical concrete placements to circulate cooling water during the curing process to avoid damaging overheating. This is the British English definition of concrete.View American English definition of concrete.. Change your default dictionary to American English. Mayan concrete at the ruins of Uxmal is referenced in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatán by John L. Stephens. This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 17:46. Modern concrete is usually prepared as a viscous fluid, so that it may be poured into forms, which are containers erected in the field to give the concrete its desired shape. As discussed above, concrete is very strong in compression, but weak in tension. Strengths as high as 130 MPa (18,900 psi) have been used commercially for these reasons. Not all bacteria increase the strength of concrete significantly with their biomass. From the 11th century, the increased use of stone in church and castle construction led to an increased demand for mortar. Mineral admixtures use recycled materials as concrete ingredients. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. With low unit weight, seldom exceeding 800 kg/m³, heat insulation value are high. Low kiln temperatures in the burning of lime, lack of pozzolana, and poor mixing all contributed to a decline in the quality of concrete and mortar. The cement paste premix may include admixtures such as accelerators or retarders, superplasticizers, pigments, or silica fume. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, The Spruce - The Difference Between Cement, Concrete, and Mortar, Royal Society of Chemistry - The concrete conundrum, concrete - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), concrete - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). {\displaystyle {\text{Cement : Sand : Aggregate}}} 49 synonyms of concrete from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 122 related words, definitions, and antonyms. [2][3] Many other non-cementitious types of concrete exist with other methods of binding aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, which is frequently used for road surfaces, and polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder. "The roof is flat and had been covered with cement". Abstract and Concrete Terms. vb archaic to create at the same time Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, ... Related to concreate: concrete. [93], Grouted aggregate is an alternative method of forming a concrete mass underwater, where the forms are filled with coarse aggregate and the voids then completely filled with pumped grout. Definition of concrete in the Idioms Dictionary. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Once in place, concrete offers great energy efficiency over the lifetime of a building. In modern cement kilns, many advanced features are used to lower the fuel consumption per ton of clinker produced. The first concrete reinforced bridge was designed and built by Joseph Monier in 1875.[34]. For higher-strength applications, accelerated curing techniques may be applied to the concrete. [65] Addition of short-cut polymer fibers can improve (reduce) shrinkage-induced stresses during curing and increase early and ultimate compression strength.[66]. Preventing freezing is the most important precaution, as formation of ice crystals can cause damage to the crystalline structure of the hydrated cement paste. Typical films are made of wax or related hydrophobic compounds. The strength of concrete is measured in pounds per square inch or kilograms per square centimetre of force needed to crush a sample of a given age or hardness. A form of polymer modified concrete. The word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus" (meaning compact or condensed), the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" (together) and "crescere" (to grow). Thorough mixing is essential to produce uniform, high-quality concrete. [39] Definition and synonyms of concrete from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education.. Slump is normally measured by filling an "Abrams cone" with a sample from a fresh batch of concrete. Admixtures are added to modify the cure rate or properties of the material. This accelerates the setting process, which in turn generates heat sufficient to counteract moderately low temperatures. Concrete Mixes are primarily divided into two types, nominal mix and design mix: Nominal mix ratios are given in volume of The fluidity of the concrete mix makes it possible to position the steel at or near the point where the greatest stress is anticipated. Because concrete cures (which is not the same as drying), how concrete is handled after it is poured is just as important as before. concrete phrase. Alternatively, concrete can be mixed into dryer, non-fluid forms and used in factory settings to manufacture precast concrete products. The mix design depends on the type of structure being built, how the concrete is mixed and delivered, and how it is placed to form the structure. Modern concrete wall systems use both external insulation and thermal mass to create an energy-efficient building. Slump can be increased by addition of chemical admixtures such as plasticizer or superplasticizer without changing the water-cement ratio. ", "Minerals commodity summary – cement – 2007", "Winter is Coming! In summary, Abstract nouns represent ideas or … Reinforced concrete, concrete in which steel is embedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces. The thermal mass properties of concrete increase the efficiency of both residential and commercial buildings. Exposure to cement dust can lead to issues such as silicosis, kidney disease, skin irritation and similar effects. Concrete debris was once routinely shipped to landfills for disposal, but recycling is increasing due to improved environmental awareness, governmental laws and economic benefits. [86] Concrete is used more than any other artificial material in the world. A wide variety of equipment is used for processing concrete, from hand tools to heavy industrial machinery. The concrete operational stage is characterized by the development of organized and rational thinking. Properly curing concrete leads to increased strength and lower permeability and avoids cracking where the surface dries out prematurely. Concrete spalling is also known as concrete scaling. During the curing period, concrete is ideally maintained at controlled temperature and humidity. The terms asphalt (or asphaltic) concrete, bituminous asphalt concrete, and bituminous mixture are typically used only in engineering and construction documents, which define concrete as any composite material composed of mineral aggregate adhered with a binder. Other finishes can be achieved with chiseling, or more conventional techniques such as painting or covering it with other materials. Concrete is one of the most Efficient & most of the times using building materials in all-over the worldwide. Pervious concrete is a mix of specially graded coarse aggregate, cement, water and little-to-no fine aggregates. This creates a horizontal plane of weakness called a cold joint between the two batches. Prestressed concrete is a form of reinforced concrete that builds in compressive stresses during construction to oppose tensile stresses experienced in use. The proper treatment of the surface of concrete, and therefore its characteristics, is an important stage in the construction and renovation of architectural structures.[90]. That same rule went into effect 23 June 2018 for general industry, hydraulic fracturing and maritime. [50] Products which incorporate limestone, fly ash, blast furnace slag, and other useful materials with pozzolanic properties into the mix, are being tested and used. A central-mix plant offers more accurate control of the concrete quality through better measurements of the amount of water added, but must be placed closer to the work site where the concrete will be used, since hydration begins at the plant. Raw concrete surfaces tend to be porous and have a relatively uninteresting appearance. More than 55,000 miles (89,000 km) of highways in the United States are paved with this material. The lower the water content, all else being equal, the stronger the concrete. A relatively wet concrete sample may slump as much as eight inches. Minimizing stress prior to curing minimizes cracking. Tests can be performed to ensure that the properties of concrete correspond to specifications for the application. When the concrete has hardened, the steel is anchored to the exterior of the member by some sort of gripping device. The premixed paste is then blended with aggregates and any remaining batch water and final mixing is completed in conventional concrete mixing equipment.[59]. When dealing with recycled aggregates, the European Standard for concrete (EN206) 6 refers users to their own national standards. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020 (. [29], A method for producing Portland cement was developed in England and patented by Joseph Aspdin in 1824. school buildings in Istanbul, Turkey[101]). They kept the cisterns secret as these enabled the Nabataeans to thrive in the desert. Resulting strength distribution in vertical elements researched and presented at the article, National Geographic Channel International / Caroline Anstey (2005), Megastructures: Petronas Twin Towers, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites, International Grooving & Grinding Association, Reinforced concrete structures durability, The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete,, "What is the development impact of concrete? Pumping aids improve pumpability, thicken the paste and reduce separation and bleeding. The amount of concrete used in the construction of the dam is estimated at 16 million cubic meters over 17 years. Hydration and hardening of concrete during the first three days is critical. Larger earthquakes can generate very large shear loads on structures. Where especially strong concrete is needed, there will be relatively less aggregate. The extremely high temperatures and long periods of time at those temperatures allows cement kilns to efficiently and completely burn even difficult-to-use fuels. For most routine uses, 20 MPa (2,900 psi) to 32 MPa (4,600 psi) concrete is often used. 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Plain Concrete3. It was named because of the similarity of its color to Portland limestone, quarried from the English Isle of Portland and used extensively in London architecture. Aggregates are generally designated as either fine (ranging in size from 0.025 to 6.5 mm [0.001 to 0.25 inch]) or coarse (from 6.5 to 38 mm [0.25 to 1.5 inch] or larger). After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. What does concrete expression mean? His son William continued developments into the 1840s, earning him recognition for the development of "modern" Portland cement. Similar systems are still used; depending on volume of the pour, the concrete mix used, and ambient air temperature, the cooling process may last for many months after the concrete is placed. The binder must fill the gaps between the aggregate as well as paste the surfaces of the aggregate together, and is typically the most expensive component. Admixtures are materials in the form of powder or fluids that are added to the concrete to give it certain characteristics not obtainable with plain concrete mixes. It is then filled in three layers of equal volume, with each layer being tamped with a steel rod to consolidate the layer. Whereas concrete is itself a building material, mortar is a bonding agent that typically holds bricks, tiles and other masonry units together.[8]. Thus, variation in sizes of the aggregate reduces the cost of concrete. The previous record was 12.3 million cubic meters held by Itaipu hydropower station in Brazil. It depends on cross-section dimension of elements and conditions of structure exploitation. Large concrete forms that cannot be adequately covered are not poured in freezing temperatures. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Among the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, the bonding substance most often used was clay. The placement consisted of 10,251 cubic yards of concrete placed in 58.5 hours using two concrete pumps and two dedicated concrete batch plants. 200 kg/cm2 [20 MPa; 2,800 psi]). Sand, natural gravel, and crushed stone are used mainly for this purpose. As the reactions proceed, the products of the cement hydration process gradually bond together the individual sand and gravel particles and other components of the concrete to form a solid mass.[40]. Reinforced Concrete4. The world record for the largest concrete pour in a single project is the Three Gorges Dam in Hubei Province, China by the Three Gorges Corporation. [27], The Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670. Definitions by the ... dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman architectural revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials. Lime (calcium oxide), derived from limestone, chalk, or (where available) oyster shells, continued to be the primary pozzolanic, or cement-forming, agent until the early 1800s. Did You Know? These are employing chiefly for insulation purposes. Options for non-combustible construction include floors, ceilings and roofs made of cast-in-place and hollow-core precast concrete. Reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete and precast concrete are the most widely used types of concrete functional extensions in modern days. For example, the lower floor columns of high-rise concrete buildings may use concrete of 80 MPa (11,600 psi) or more, to keep the size of the columns small. . Once the ingredients are mixed, workers must put the concrete in place before it hardens. Some are harmful, some welcome, and some both, depending on circumstances. The early strength of the concrete can be increased if it is kept damp during the curing process. This surpassed the previous record by 50% in total volume and 7.5% in total area. When aggregate is mixed with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and molded into shape. Workability can be measured by the concrete slump test, a simple measure of the plasticity of a fresh batch of concrete following the ASTM C 143 or EN 12350-2 test standards. [88], Due to cement's exothermic chemical reaction while setting up, large concrete structures such as dams, navigation locks, large mat foundations, and large breakwaters generate excessive heat during hydration and associated expansion. The widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. Kolb’s experiential learning cycle begins with the notion of ‘concrete experience.’ What constitutes an experience as ‘concrete’ enough to make it eligible for consideration? Care must also be taken to avoid freezing or overheating due to the exothermic setting of cement. Its usage worldwide, ton for ton, is twice that of steel, wood, plastics, and aluminum combined. The first step in this process was the creation of higher-strength artificial cements. [10] Some of these structures survive to this day.[10]. In modern usage, most concrete production takes place in a large type of industrial facility called a concrete plant, or often a batch plant. Concrete floors were found in the royal palace of Tiryns, Greece, which dates roughly to 1400–1200 BC. What I’ve seen with concrete sequential learners is they learn well when one example or concept follows another in a linear way. The strengths of concrete is dictated by its function. This can lead to strength gradients.[42]. The presence of some substances in concrete, including useful and unwanted additives, can cause health concerns due to toxicity and radioactivity. For example, in Indian standards, the mixes of grades M10, M15, M20 and M25 correspond approximately to the mix proportions (1:3:6), (1:2:4), (1:1.5:3) and (1:1:2) respectively. Many precautions are observed in cold weather placement. One of these methods includes placing the cone on the narrow end and observing how the mix flows through the cone while it is gradually lifted. The definition can include materials (or mixtures of materials) such as, for example, crushed concrete, masonry (bricks or blocks) or recycled asphalt. B. pasteurii increases resistance to acid. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the United States recommends attaching local exhaust ventilation shrouds to electric concrete grinders to control the spread of this dust. A concrete plant consists of large storage hoppers for various reactive ingredients like cement, storage for bulk ingredients like aggregate and water, mechanisms for the addition of various additives and amendments, machinery to accurately weigh, move, and mix some or all of those ingredients, and facilities to dispense the mixed concrete, often to a concrete mixer truck. All aggregate materials must be clean and free from admixture with soft particles or vegetable matter, because even small quantities of organic soil compounds result in chemical reactions that seriously affect the strength of the concrete. [82] Lightweight concrete is often achieved by adding air, foams, or lightweight aggregates, with the side effect that the strength is reduced. The concrete solidifies and hardens through a chemical process called hydration. Similarly, relatively little energy is used in producing and combining the raw materials (although large amounts of CO2 are produced by the chemical reactions in cement manufacture). [23] Roman concrete is significantly more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; it used pyroclastic materials which react with seawater to form Al-tobermorite crystals over time.[24][25]. Concrete floor - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. The Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct (688 BC) made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete’s strength is affected by environmental factors, especially temperature and moisture. Let's say that I'm trying to describe addition. Therefore, it is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension, typically steel rebar. Workers who cut, grind or polish concrete are at risk of inhaling airborne silica, which can lead to silicosis. Define concreate. Companies which fail to meet the tightened safety regulations can face financial charges and extensive penalties. Types of Lightweight Concrete Based on Density and Strength. If a structure must be very rigid, concrete of very high strength may be specified, even much stronger than is required to bear the service loads. the possibility of frost damage. Traditional conditions for curing involve spraying or ponding the concrete surface with water. Concrete is a composite material, consisting mainly of Portland cement, water and aggregate (gravel, sand or rock). [84], Concrete is one of the most durable building materials. Crystalline admixtures are typically added during batching of the concrete to lower permeability. The posts have to be set in concrete..., They had lain on sleeping bags on the concrete floor. Another durability factor is the amount of cement in relation to the aggregate (expressed as a three-part ratio—cement to fine aggregate to coarse aggregate). The cement reacts with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Let's look at these different types of language. Concrete recycling is an increasingly common method for disposing of concrete structures. The meaning of their experience is, likewise, not solely an individual product of reflection. More…. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus The reaction takes place when exposed to water and un-hydrated cement particles to form insoluble needle-shaped crystals, which fill capillary pores and micro-cracks in the concrete to block pathways for water and waterborne contaminates. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. [99] While insulation reduces energy loss through the building envelope, thermal mass uses walls to store and release energy. [citation needed] Bacillus sp. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice, often consisted of rubble. "But throughout the wall was solid, and consisting of large stones imbedded in mortar, almost as hard as rock. To compensate for this, an additive such as calcium chloride is mixed in with the cement. It is simply a blend of aggregates, normally natural sand … Concrete dust released by building demolition and natural disasters can be a major source of dangerous air pollution. [32] and the first reinforced concrete house was built by François Coignet[33] in 1853. When these materials are mixed together, they form a workable paste which then gradually hardens over time.

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